Volume 1 of 4 module 1 basic electrical theory this module describes basic electrical concepts and introduces electrical terminology. So when a motor fails to operate it may not be obvious what the problem is. Know the fundamental of electrical engineering and practical. This selfstudy curriculum includes courses on electricity, controls, ac motors, and power distribution products. In most dc motors, the magnet is in the stator and the current is owing in the rotor. Without electric motors, we would not have power tools, household appliances, or even cars. There is even a little motor that is used to eject the removable disk from its drive. Powering industry since replacing the steam engine from tiny hysteresis motors that drive electric clocks to huge synchronous motors that develop more than 50,000 hp, the alternating current ac motor has become an indispensable part of everyday life.
Additionally, electric motors drive compressors to compress refrigerant. Electric vehicles just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plugin electric vehicles also known as electric cars or evs have different capabilities that can accommodate different drivers needs. Whatever the application, the function of the contactor is always the same. An ac motor of this type may be part of a pump or fan or connected to some other form of mechanical equipment such as a winder, conveyor, or mixer.
This video is part of the electrical code academy, inc. The rotor will constantly be turning to align its magnetic field with that of the stator field. This book provides a basic and indepth explanation for the operation of several different classes of electric motor. Currently it is possible to control the speed of induction motors by frequency inverters. These parameters are then coded onto the motor nameplate to give you a basic definition of what you have received. The electrical installation handbook is a tool which is suitable for all those who are interested in electrical plants. Instrumentation and control tutorial 2 electric actuators this is a stand alone tutorial on electric motors and actuators. His law ohms law stated that current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to. It is therefore used in starter motors of cars and elevator motors p.
The text that was researched and compiled contains explanations of the motor parts, theory about electromagnetism and how current is used to make an electrical motor rotate. Ac alternating current reverses poles of electro magnetic coil 120 times per sec 60hz. The concept of electricity is both familiar and mysterious. On completion of this tutorial, you should be able to do the following. Practical implementation of fundamental theory concepts. Electric motors basics the hvac industry depends heavily on the electric motor. For consultation and interpretation of components, devices and electrical and electronic circuit. The 101 basics series provides a solid foundation of power distribution and control equipment knowledge. An introduction to electrical motors basics course description. Fundamentals of electric motors and transformers idc technologies. Brushless motors overview there are different types of brushless motors. A magnetic starter or other motor controllers may include overload devices, or they may be an integral part.
Generators, dc motors, ac theory, ac power, ac generators, voltage. Senior fellow, school of electronic and electrical engineering. The tutorial is of interest to any student studying control systems and in particular the ec module d227 control system engineering. Basics of dc motors for electrical engineers beginners on photo. Knowledge of the basics together with powerful new test equipment vastly simplifies the job. Basics of iec reference guide 3 abb basics of iec motors a dictionary will tell you a watt is a unit of electrical power measurement based on amperes and volts an input unit. How to make a simple electric motor science project.
This module will discuss both types of motors, and how to control them. Fundamentals of electric motors and transformers rajib mikail lecturer department of electrical and electronic engineering bangladesh university of engineering and technology dhaka email. In order to understand even the simplest concepts of electronics, you must first understand what electricity is. An electric motor is a machine that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. Ac motors are used worldwide in many applications to transform electrical energy into mechanical energy. The theory used in the work was collected by studying literature on how electrical motors work, and by simplifying the explanations to suit the intended reader. There are many types of ac motors, but this course focuses on threephase induction motors, the most common type of motor used in industrial applications. Other members of the family are the directcurrent dc motor or generator, the induction motor or generator, and a number of derivatives of all these three. We all know what electricity is, or at least have a rough. It also contains information about motor standards and. Dc motor although ac motors are the most common type of motor. Basics of brushless dc motors bldc motors construction. Those who are looking to enter an online or traditional electrical engineering program, or currently enrolled students, can use this post. A useful introduction to electric motors electrical.
Those areas are left to the individual instructors and the instructors should capitalize. One ampere is 6,280,000,000,000,000,000 electrons passing a point in one second. In the year 1821 british scientist michael faraday explained the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by placing a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field which resulted in the rotation of the conductor due to the torque produced by the mutual action of electrical current and field. Induction motors are used in 90% of electrical power industries. Or, as defined by nema, to repeatedly establish and interrupt an electrical power circuit. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook. Lastly, the electric motor powers a pump to move water for chilled water and hot water applications. All around us there are electrical devices that move things around. The electric motor is a device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. In this section, youll learn about basics of induction motors. Magnetic field passing through the conductors of the rotor induces current to flow. Current i current is the quantity of electrons passing a given point. Students will learn different applications of commonly used electrical machinery. A motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy ac alternating current reverses poles of electromagnetic coil 120 times per sec 60hz coils wound into the stator of the motor create rotating magnetic field magnetic field passing through the conductors of the rotor induces current to flow.
The electric motor operation is based on the following points. There are many types of ac motors, but this course focuses on threephase ac induction motors, the most common type of motor used in industrial applications. Electric motors and drives fundamentals, types and applications third edition austin hughes senior fellow, school of electronic and electrical engineering, university of leeds amsterdam boston heidelberg london new york oxford paris san diego san francisco singapore sydney tokyo newnes is an imprint of. Hvac essentials series electrical fundamentals course ss103 version 2. The direction is changed by reversing the polarity on the leads. Generators, motors, transformers, and solenoids each use the principle of electromagnetism. A basic rule of thumb is that in an ac motor, as in an ac generator used for industrial power production, the magnet is on. Basics of motors and motor control welcome to module 16, which is about the basics of motors and motor control. Motor speci cations usually involve several quantities. A german mathematician, george simon ohm, formulated this relationship in the 19th century. What is common to all the members of this family is that the basic. The basic idea of an electric motor is to generate two magnetic fields. Unit 16 electric motors objectives after studying this unit, the student will be able to state the purpose of an electric motor.
The stator is a permanent magnet, so the motor is smaller in size. Electric motors basics hvac easy tips for learning 101. The motor is controlled by applying a voltage to the motor leads. In addition to providing basic information about ac motors. So if you know two of the three characteristics, your can calculate the third one. Introduction to electricity the importance of electricity in our modern society is often taken for granted. An introduction to electric motors stmicroelectronics.
Maximum loading of any circuit breaker is 80% of rating for non motor loads with exceptions as noted below. Jun 29, 2017 electrical motor starters are used for starting the induction motors with protection and very smoothly, so in this video we have explained different motor starters direct on line dol starter. Sep 27, 2012 learning 101 basics of motors and motor controls. The book deals with the fundamentals, theory, and design of conventional cars with internal combustion engines ices, electric vehicles evs, hybrid electric vehicles hevs, and fuel cell vehicles fcvs. Structure of motors stator rotor terminal box enclosure. Electric motors have had a reputation for being a mix of science and magic. To define the basic performance and mounting parameters of a motor, the national electrical manufacturers association nema defines some basic design and dimensional parameters in nema standard publication mg 1 1993.
Basics of dc motors for electrical engineers beginners. In most cases, the considerations can be extended to the other types. A motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The ac induction motor is the most used electrical motor in industrial applications worldwide. Like generators, electric motors consist of a stator and a rotor and the three ingredients. An ac motor of this type may be part of a pump or fan or. Scroll to the bottom to watch the youtube tutorial on this article the induction motor is the most common type of electrical motor used in industry, and its used in pretty much everything, from elevators. Ohms law is the basic formula used in all ac and dc electrical circuits.
How does a threephase alternating current induction motor work. Electrical motor types classification and history of motor. Reference guide low voltage motors basics of iec motors. Just about everything in ones life that whine, whirrs or clicks does so because an electric motor caused the motion. Students will learn strong basics of electrical engineering and practical implementation of electrical fundamentals.
Electrical installation handbook protection, control and. This reading is a very brief introduction to four most basic types of electric motors. Three vital parts of instruction have been intentionally omitted from these publications. We would like to encourage students, teachers, instructors, trainees, architects, engineers, professors and researchers to visit this site regularly. Basic nec code rules and design practice wire ampacity and size 1.
This video covers the very basics of sizing conductors for motors, shortcircuit. The main design difference between a brushed and brushless motors is the replacement of mechanical commutator with an electric switch circuit. Download fulltext pdf basics of electrical engineering a text book for first year b tech students of engineering all specializations book july 2016 with 110,817 reads. Maximum loading for any branch circuit is 80% of rating of circuit for. Other motors that are included are 1phase induction motors. Keeping that in mind, a bldc motor is a type of synchronous motor in the sense that the magnetic field generated by the stator and the rotor revolve at the same frequency. Furthermore, the electric motor is the primary component that powers blowers to move air. After all, the whole purpose of electronics is to get electricity to do useful and interesting things. Finally, a comparison between different motors is presented. The 3phase set of currents, each of equal magnitude and with a phase. Leeson and other major manufacturers use laminated stator, rotor and armature cores to reduce energy losses and heat in the motor. Pdf basics of electrical engineering a text book for.
The electrical science handbook consists of fifteen modules that are contained in four volumes. Fundamentals of electricity there is a definite relationship between the three primary electrical characteristics. Electrical designers use it to determine how much voltage is required for a certain load, like a motor, a computer, or even a house full of appliances. Motors specification of electric motors marshall wolf automation. Find out here with this article on induction motors. Students will learn different applications of commonly used electrical machinery unit 1. This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to understand and recognize different types, components, theory of operation and applications of all electrical motors. National electrical manufacturers association nemanema. The largest collection of symbols in the network in pdf format. Ohms law, kirchhoffs voltage and current laws, nodesbranches. Working of electric motor mainly depends upon the interaction of magnetic field with current. The maximum torque is limited by the current rating of the motor and it is obtained at zero speed startup. Electric energy can be converted into useful work, or mechanical energy, by machines called electric motors. Singlephase twophase threephase the presentation will describe the basics of the threephase brushless motor because it is the most common version.
Every effort has been made to make these publications basic, readable, and by all means, usable. Coils wound into the stator of the motor create rotating magnetic field. Basic ac electrical generators 1 introduction faradays law. Basics of induction motors basics of electrical engineering. It comprehensively presents vehicle performance, configuration, control strategy, design. Now we will discuss the basic operating principle of electric. Thus the torque is proportional 2to i so it gives the highest torque per current ratio over all other dc motors. Depending on the certifying organization, these courses may be. Electric motors work due to electromagnetic interactions. Electrical current flows from a region of high charge or potential to a region of low potential. Dc stands for direct current, and they were the first type of motors that were commonly used because they could be powered from a preexisting power distribution system. Dec 17, 2015 without electric motors, we would not have power tools, household appliances, or even cars. At least one of the two magnetic field is generated by a solenoid.830 1317 1478 342 285 44 117 915 1303 1146 776 1465 212 749 671 1280 472 334 1091 851 319 79 1292 296 1200 43 1184 985 594 209 83 1174